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The Battle Against Bloodstream Infections: A Pediatric Study On Bacterial Isolates & Antibiotic Resistance In Iran

Bloodstream infections (BSIs) contribute significantly to the morbidities and mortalities experienced by children in developing nations. To this end, a study conducted at the Children’s Medical Center Hospital (CMC) in Tehran, Iran provided crucial insight into the bacteria that trigger these infections and their antimicrobial resistance profiles. This research was proactive and primarily targeted healthcare professionals to inform their decisions regarding anti-infective prescriptions. The study spanned five years, gathering data on positive blood cultures, the identification of involved bacteria, and their antibiotic resistance patterns. A total of 3,179 pathogens were isolated, yielding 2,824 bacteria. Of these, 46% were identified as Gram-positive, while 54% were Gram-negative.

Analyzing the results showed a concerning increase in Gram-negative bacteria in recent periods. This pivotal shift requires adjusting healthcare strategies considering this transition could influence the choice of antibiotics prescribed and the administrative methods of infection control. Antimicrobial resistance was also a significant concern. The high resistance displayed by E. coli isolates towards cefotaxime (84%) illustrates the dilemma. However, there were promising results, like the case of P. aeruginosa, which showed good susceptibility to all tested antibiotics.

The fact that 34% of bacterial strains were found in ICUs was significant. ICUs are critical areas in hospitals and more prone to high trafficking of antibiotic-resistant organisms. Therefore, this finding stresses the importance of adapting better infection control measures and antibiotic administering regulations. These adaptations should be coupled with the promotion of innovative vaccination techniques to effectively combat the growing incidences of BSIs caused by antibiotic-resistant organisms.

The researchers also underlined the healthcare professionals’ necessity to gain access to up-to-date bacterial susceptibility data for routinely prescribed drugs. Continual surveillance for changes in bacterial resistance can assist in establishing precedence for local intervention programs in Iran.

Lastly, the high levels of morbidity and mortality linked with BSIs, particularly in children, underline the urgent need for improved diagnostic and treatment strategies. Compounded by increasing antimicrobial resistance, the challenge intensifies. Therefore, healthcare systems must advance robust practices to limit the spread of these infections, alongside efficient antibiotic stewardship programs, to ensure judicious antibiotic use.

Source: https://bmcinfectdis.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12879-024-09260-w

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