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Strategies to Curb Antibiotic Misuse and Combat the Emergence of Superbugs

As the threat of antibiotic-resistant bacteria or ‘superbugs’ continues to grow, it is important to explore effective ways to counteract this global health issue. On the front lines of this fight is the practice of antibiotic stewardship, which seeks to limit the misuse of antibiotics, a primary driver of bacterial resistance. In practical terms, it refers to advising healthcare professionals on more strategic use of antibiotics and educating patients on their responsible use.

The excessive and inappropriate use of antibiotics, particularly broad-spectrum antibiotics, which can affect numerous types of bacteria, has contributed significantly to the rise of superbugs. When these antibiotics are used too broadly, bacteria develop resistance against them and can potentially share this resistance with other bacteria.

Hence, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) emphasize the importance of antibiotic stewardship and have provided guidelines to standardize the use of antibiotics in various healthcare settings including hospitals and nursing homes. The ultimate objective is to minimize the unwarranted prescription of antibiotics for viral infections and the unnecessary use of broad-spectrum antibiotics.

According to Dr. Shruti Gohil, a key investigator of INSPIRE-ASP Trials, a critical metric of the success of antibiotic stewardship would be the decline of multi-drug resistant organisms (MDROs) both at a general population level and within individual patients. This shift requires in-depth education for clinicians on the appropriate use of antibiotics and vigilance regarding their prescription practices.

With this in view, hospitals are making use of ‘deescalation’ practices to fine-tune patient prescriptions—reducing the dosage, shortening the duration, or narrowing the spectrum of antibiotic wherever appropriate. This approach is complemented by the use of electronic systems to guide physicians in prescribing the most fitting antibiotics for different infections. In many cases, hospitals also limit access to super broad-spectrum drugs, mandating physicians to seek special approval for their use.

Alongside improving antibiotic stewardship among healthcare professionals, it is equally critical to educate individual patients on the right use of antibiotics. This includes sticking to prescribed dosages, avoiding using antibiotics prescribed to others, and not skipping doses. By doing so, the likelihood of resistance emerging and spreading from one person to another decreases.

The struggle against superbugs is not limited to human medicine alone. Antibiotic stewardship is also crucial in the field of animal agriculture since multi-drug resistant organisms originating in food-producing animals can pose a threat to human health.

In conclusion, the battle against superbugs and the potential risks they pose to public health will need a concerted effort from healthcare professionals, patients, and the broader community. By implementing robust antibiotic stewardship strategies, it is possible to turn the tide against antibiotic resistance and ensure the long-lasting efficacy of current antibiotic therapies.

Source: https://www.livescience.com/health/medicine-drugs/superbugs-are-on-the-rise-how-can-we-prevent-antibiotics-from-becoming-obsolete

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